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Como Reacciona el Cerebro

By Alejandro Cuellar on julio 1, 2013 in NOTICIAS RECIENTES
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El cerebro humano es capaz de adaptarse a lo inesperado gracias a que cuenta con una red de neuronas que hace predicciones sobre el mundo que nos rodea y, además, monitoriza cómo de acertadas resultan esas predicciones. El núcleo de esa red se encuentra en la denominada corteza orbitofrontal, un área cerebral situada por encima de los ojos. Cuando está dañada en un paciente, éste suele confundir los recuerdos con la realidad y continuamente anticipa acontecimientos que es poco probable que sucedan.

Un nuevo estudio supervisado por el profesor Armin Schnider, de los Hospitales Universitarios de Ginebra (Suiza), y publicado en la revista Cortex, arroja luz sobre los mecanismos cerebrales que nos permiten anticiparnos a lo que ocurre y adaptarnos a sucesos inesperados. Analizando el cerebro de voluntarios sanos con ayuda de un escáner de resonancia magnética, Schnider y sus colegas analizaron cómo reaccionaban cuando, mirando rostros humanos, tenían que predecir en qué caras estaba a punto de aparecer una araña (estímulo potencialmente peligroso) o un círculo negro (estímulo neutro). El análisis del cerebro mostró que la zona encargada de crear expectativas reaccionaba igual en todos los casos una vez que se producían los acontecimientos, sin importar si lo que había ocurrido o dejado de ocurrir suponía una amenaza. El área cerebral encargada de procesar estímulos visuales, por el contrario, respondía con más intensidad al ver la araña.

“El comportamiento adaptativo supone la habilidad de reaccionar a estímulos potencialmente dañinos, caracterizados por emociones negativas, pero también debemos responder adecuadamente cuando eventos que habíamos anticipado no ocurren“, aclara Schnider.

Vía/muyinteresante

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